There are a number of general contracting principles under Venezuelan contract law. These principles are mainly regulated by the Venezuelan Civil Code. General civil law principles like freedom to contract, capacity to contract, and formation are applicable under Venezuelan law. Contracts can be written or oral and, in general, no formal requirement for a contract to be enforceable and valid, the parties should however make sure that the signatories acting on behalf of another person or entity have authority to execute the contract.
Choice of Law and Jurisdiction
In general, the choice of foreign law by the parties as governing law for contracts is binding under Venezuelan law, provided that foreign law does not contrive essential principles of Venezuelan public policy. Collateral granted on assets located in Venezuela and other contracts relating to real estate located in Venezuela are governed by Venezuelan laws.
Choice of foreign jurisdiction is valid under Venezuela law. A foreign judgment rendered by a foreign court is enforceable in Venezuela, subject to obtaining a confirmatory judgment in Venezuela.
Such confirmatory judgment could be obtained from the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of the Republic in accordance with the provisions and conditions of the Venezuelan law on conflicts of laws, without a review of the merits of the foreign judgment, provided that: (a) the foreign judgment concerns matters of private civil or commercial law only; (b) the foreign judgment constitutes res judicata under the laws of the jurisdiction where it was rendered; (c) the foreign judgment does not relate to real property interests over real property located in Venezuela and the exclusive jurisdiction of Venezuelan courts over the matter has not been violated; (d) the foreign courts have jurisdiction over the matter pursuant to the general principles of jurisdiction of the Venezuelan Statute on Conflicts of Law (pursuant to such principles, a foreign court would have jurisdiction over Venezuelan entities if such entities submit to the jurisdiction of such foreign court, provided that the matter submitted to the foreign jurisdiction does not relate to real property located in Venezuela and does not contravene essential principles of Venezuelan public policy); (e) the defendant has been duly served of the proceedings, with sufficient time to appear in the proceedings, and has been generally granted with procedural guarantees that secure a reasonable possibility of defense; (f) the foreign judgment is not incompatible with a prior judgment that constitutes res judicata and no proceeding initiated prior to the rendering of the foreign judgment is pending before Venezuelan courts on the same subject matter among the same parties to litigation; and (g) the foreign judgment does not contravene the essential principles of Venezuelan public policy.
The submission by the parties of an agreement to arbitration in a country outside Venezuela would be binding in Venezuela. Venezuela is a party to the 1958 Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (the “New York Convention”). Pursuant to the New York Convention, arbitral awards are enforceable in Venezuela without requiring a confirmatory judgment in Venezuela (exequatur) or a retrial or re-examination of the merits. However, the Venezuelan court in charge of enforcing the award can review the causes of nullity of awards contemplated in the New York Convention.
In practice, enforcement proceedings in Venezuela are generally lengthy, complex and cumbersome, and may be challenged (and therefore delayed) by the affected party on many legal grounds, and may be suspended or delayed. From our experience, an enforcement proceeding may take from several months to a few years, depending on the circumstances and complexity of the case.
In addition, a judgment or award for money issued by a foreign court or arbitration panel would likely be enforced in Venezuela only in bolivars at the then existing Cadivi exchange rate, and then the company receiving the bolivars would have difficulties in converting such bolivars into foreign currency as a result of the existing exchange controls.
In light of the above, counterparties of Venezuelan companies (whether public or private) generally take into account the assets of such companies located outside Venezuela as the real guarantee or support for the contractual obligations of such Venezuelan companies.
Contractual clauses allowing one party to unilaterally terminate a contract without judicial intervention in case of breach of the obligations of the other party may be unenforceable, unless the terminating party is the Venezuelan government or a Venezuelan state-owned company. As a general rule, termination for breach of the other party requires a declaration by the court or the arbitral tribunal (in case the contract contains an arbitration clause).